Breaking NEWz you can UzE...
compiled by Jon Stimac
McKie Case Four Quit –
DAILY RECORD, UK
- Mar 31, 2007 ...fingerprint experts at the center of the
McKie case have been forced to quit...
Fingerprint Chief Quits –
DAILY RECORD, UK -
2007 ...the head of the Scottish Fingerprint
Service has resigned...
Fingerprints, Florida Lead Nets Arrest in '90 Killing
TUCSON CITIZEN, AZ
- Mar 29,
2007 ...cold case detectives' diligence and a Florida
deputy's compassion resulted in the arrest of a slaying suspect...
Three Linked to Crime Scene
ONLINE, So AFRICA
- Mar 26, 2007
...fingerprints have linked three of the five men accused of farmer's
Recent CLPEX Posting Activity
containing new posts
Moderated by Steve Everist
Daubert Debate in MD
L.J.Steele 863 Sun Apr 01, 2007 2:11 pm
Thomas Taylor 54 Sat Mar 31, 2007 1:11 am
Mike Fletcher 428 Wed Mar 28, 2007 3:01 am
Michele Triplett 473 Tue Mar 27, 2007 7:53 pm
Doctors too affected by various heristics
L.J.Steele 534 Mon Mar 26, 2007 3:38 pm
UPDATES ON CLPEX.com
updates on the website this week.
we continued a series on U.S. patents related to
latent print examination.
we continue this series
with a patent involving Ion Beam Mixing and Surface Spectroscopy of Latent
Patent - Ion Beam Mixing and
Surface Spectroscopy of Latent Prints
Authored by Charles Koch
The present invention is related to the field of forensic science. More
particularly, the present invention is related to fingerprint detection and
Fingerprints are impressions of the system of friction ridges on the surface
of fingers, palms, toes, and feet. Most latent fingerprints are formed when
perspiration escapes through the ridged surface. The primary component of
such a fingerprint is ordinary perspiration. Human perspiration is a mixture
of many substances including fatty acids, proteins, peptides, amino acids,
chloride salts, water, and urea, some of which can remain detectable on a
surface for long periods of time. Fingerprints can also contain residue of
what a person has handled. For example, if a person was handling grease,
gasoline, TNT, or other substances, the fingerprint may contain trace
amounts of these substances.
A variety of methods have been developed which use the various substances
contained in the residues of a latent fingerprint for creating an observable
image. For example, silver nitrate was found to react with the salt in a
latent print, which, through exposure to a light source, forms a visible
The method widely known as "dusting for prints" involves depositing a
colored powder on a surface suspected of bearing latent fingerprints. The
powder adheres to lipid residue on a surface and the loose excess powder is
delicately brushed off, thereby disclosing any latent fingerprints.
In another method, iodine crystals are warmed causing the sublimation of the
crystals and the gas thus produced is blown or wafted over the surface being
examined for latent fingerprints. Iodine gas reacts with the lipids, causing
the latent fingerprint to become visible.
Recent developmental work in the field of fingerprint detection has yielded
new detection methods including various fluorogenic visualization and
cyanoacrylate (C/A) fuming techniques. In the fluorogenic visualization
techniques, the latent fingerprint is treated with one or more chemical
reagents which react with and covalently bond with compounds in the print to
form a fluorescent chemical product. The image of the latent print is then
viewed or photographed with the aid of an optical filter and under
illumination of light of appropriate wavelength to cause excitation and
fluorescence of the image.
Each of these fingerprint detection techniques relies on the presence of
residues from perspiration, which must be present in sufficient quantity to
perform the technique. After the sufficient quantity of residue is removed
from the surface, the technique can no longer be performed. While more
modern techniques require only a small amount of residue, there is still a
need for a fingerprint detection technique that would reduce the amount of
residue needed to detect latent fingerprints.
Once detected, the fingerprints must be preserved for analysis. One method
of preserving the fingerprint is by "lifting" the fingerprint from the
surface using tape or other material. Another method of preserving the
fingerprint is by photographing the fingerprint. While both methods are
sufficient for macro analyses by human experts, such as the detection of
whorls, arches, and loops, the resolution of the preserved fingerprint is
typically not sufficient for use with sophisticated computer algorithms for
analyzing micro features of the fingerprint.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The above-described drawbacks and deficiencies of the prior art are overcome
or alleviated by a method of detecting fingerprints on a substrate, the
method comprising: ion beam mixing materials associated with the fingerprint
into the substrate to create an ion beam mixed fingerprint; and analyzing
the ion beam mixed fingerprint.
In one embodiment, analyzing the ion beam mixed fingerprint includes
optically imaging the ion beam mixed fingerprint. In another embodiment, the
analyzing includes scanning the ion beam mixed fingerprint with a scanning
electron microscope. In another embodiment, the analyzing includes
performing a surface analysis technique on the ion beam mixed fingerprint to
identify the chemical composition of at least one material associated with
at least one of the fingerprint and the substrate.
In one aspect, the surface analysis technique includes at least one of Auger
Spectroscopy, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), Secondary Electron
Microscopy (SEM), Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), and Energy
Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS).
The analyzing may further include mapping the chemical composition of the at
least one material associated with the at least one of the fingerprint and
the substrate to produce a computer generated image of the fingerprint. The
mapping may include identifying an element in the chemical composition of
the at least one material associated with the at least one of the
fingerprint and the substrate; and assigning pixel intensities to the
relative abundance of the element.
These and other features and advantages of the present invention will be
apparent from the following brief description of the drawings, detailed
description, and appended claims and drawings.
The method and apparatus described herein employ an ion implantation process
to ion beam mix the materials of latent fingerprints into a substrate, such
that the atoms that form the latent fingerprints become an integrated part
of the substrate material. The permanent record of the fingerprint can be
imaged optically or with a scanning electron microscope. In addition,
surface analysis techniques such as Auger Spectroscopy, Secondary Ion Mass
Spectroscopy (SIMS), Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM), Particle Induced
X-ray Emission (PIXE), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) can be
used to identify the chemical composition of the fingerprint material.
Once identified, the materials of the fingerprint (e.g., elements, molecular
fragments and/or molecules) unique to the fingerprint can be mapped using
computer assigned intensities to their relative abundance. The result is a
computer-aided map of the latent fingerprint drawn with elements, molecules
or molecular fragments. These can be of human origin or residue from the
person leaving the fingerprint.
The first part of the method is to ion beam mix materials associated with a
latent fingerprint into a substrate with the proper ion species, at the
proper energy, and to the correct fluence. As shown in FIG. 1, a linear
accelerator 10 within an ion implanter 12 to creates a beam of charged
atoms, or ions 14. Within the ion implanter 12, the ion beam 14 is shaped
and directed toward a substrate 16, and the ions are embedded in the
material of the substrate 16. When the surface of the substrate 16 has
material on it, such as a fingerprint 18, the effect of the incident ions is
to drive that material into the surface of the substrate 16.
FIG. 2 illustrates the role of the incident beam 14 ions and how they are
implanted into the substrate 16 surface. Energetic ions penetrate the
surface and interact with the substrate 16 material. The composition and
structure of the near surface region of the substrate 16 is altered. On the
order of 1000 atoms are displaced from their lattice position by the
collision cascade produced by one incoming energetic ion. This process in
referred to as "ion beam mixing".
The ion implanter 12 may be any ion implanter such as, for example, those
commercially available from companies such as Varian Semiconductor Equipment
Associates, Inc. and Eaton and configured to provide a pure, focused ion
beam of the appropriate mass (ion species), fluence, and energy for the
substrate material, as described in further detail hereinafter.
For ion beam mixing of the fingerprint to be successful, the mass (ion
species), fluence, and energy of the incident ion beam 14 should be matched
to the substrate 16 on which the fingerprint 18 is formed. If the incident
ion has too high a mass with too low an energy it will sputter the
fingerprint 18 away, without any mixing taking place. If the incident ion is
too low in mass, and too high in energy, it will pass through the
fingerprint 18 and deposit its energy deep in the substrate 16. For optimal
results the ion beam 14 should have the correct mass and energy and fluence
to come to rest in the area of the interface between the fingerprint 18 and
its substrate 16 material. Because the ions' final resting place is always a
Gaussian distribution, some of the atoms from the fingerprint 18 will be
carried into the substrate 16 material and remain there.
For metal substrates 16 the ion beam 14 is formed of a reactive element,
preferably oxygen (e.g., O+ or O.sub.2 +) or chlorine. The ion beam 14
preferably has an energy greater than or equal to about 25 kilo electron
volts (keV), more preferably greater than or equal to about 40 keV, and most
preferably greater than or equal to about 50 keV. The ion beam 14 energy is
preferably less than or equal to about 200 keV, more preferably less than or
equal to about 100 keV, and most preferably less than or equal to about 75
keV. The ion beam 14 preferably has a fluence of greater than or equal to
about 1.times.10.sup.11 ions per square centimeter (cm), and more preferably
greater than or equal to about 1.times.10.sup.16 ions per square cm. The ion
beam 14 preferably has a fluence less than or equal to about
1.times.10.sup.19, more preferably less than or equal to about
1.times.10.sup.17, and most preferably less than or equal to about
5.times.10.sup.16 ions per square cm.
For polymer substrates 16 the ion beam 14 is preferably formed of an element
having a cross section smaller than that of argon, preferably a chlorine
element (e.g., Cl+). The ion beam 14 preferably has an energy greater than
or equal to about 35 keV. The ion beam energy is preferably less than or
equal to about 200 keV, more preferably less than or equal to about 100 keV,
and most preferably less than or equal to about 50 keV. The ion beam 14
preferably has a fluence of greater than or equal to about 1.times.10.sup.11
ions per square cm, and more preferably greater than or equal to about
1.times.10.sup.15 ions per square cm. The ion beam 14 preferably has a
fluence less than or equal to about 5.times.10.sup.19, and more preferably
less than or equal to about 5.times.10.sup.16 ions per square cm.
For glass substrates 16 the ion beam 14 is preferably formed of an element
having a cross section smaller than that of xenon, preferably a lithium
element (e.g., Li). The ion beam 14 preferably has an energy greater than or
equal to about 40 keV, and more preferably greater than or equal to about 50
keV. The ion beam energy is preferably less than or equal to about 200 keV,
more preferably less than or equal to about 100 keV. The ion beam 14
preferably has a fluence of greater than or equal to about 5.times.10.sup.11
ions per square cm, more preferably greater than or equal to about
5.times.10.sup.16 ions per square cm, and most preferably greater than or
equal to about 1.times.10.sup.17 ions per square cm. The ion beam preferably
14 has a fluence less than or equal to about 5.times.10.sup.19, more
preferably less than or equal to about 5.times.10.sup.17 ions per square cm,
and most preferably less than or equal to about 2.times.10.sup.17 ions per
For paper substrates 16 the ion beam 14 is preferably formed of an element
having a cross section smaller than that of argon, preferably a lithium
element (e.g., Li). The ion beam 14 preferably has an energy greater than or
equal to about 30 keV. The ion beam 14 energy is preferably less than or
equal to about 200 keV, more preferably less than or equal to about 70 keV.
The ion beam 14 preferably has a fluence of greater than or equal to about
1.times.10.sup.11 ions per square cm, and more preferably greater than or
equal to about 1.times.10.sup.15 ions per square cm. The ion beam 14
preferably has a fluence less than or equal to about 1.times.10.sup.19, and
more preferably less than or equal to about 1.times.10.sup.16 ions per
The present invention uses this ion beam mixing process to imbed the latent
fingerprint 18 material into the substrate 16 material. The fingerprint 18
is no longer only on the surface, but is now a permanent part of the
substrate 16 material. The ion beam mixed fingerprint 18 extends in three
dimensions into the substrate 16, with its size and shape corresponding to
the size and shape of the fingerprint 18 when it was on the surface of the
substrate 16. The ion implantation process takes what once was volatile and
fragile fingerprint 18 material and imbeds those atoms and molecules into
the substrate 16 making them more durable, permanent, and detectable by
sophisticated material analysis techniques. For many substrates 16, the
fingerprint 18, which may have been invisible (optically clear) on the
surface of substrate 16, becomes visible (optically opaque) to the eye or to
other optical imaging techniques after the ion beam mixing.
The second part of the method is to analyze the ion beam mixed fingerprint
using one or more analysis method. Analysis of the ion beam mixed
fingerprint can include optical imaging, such as viewing the fingerprint by
eye or by using an optical microscope with or without a camera. Analysis of
the ion beam mixed fingerprint may also include viewing the ion beam mixed
fingerprint using a scanning electron microscope. Analysis of the ion beam
mixed fingerprint can also be performed with computer aided, atomic/chemical
mapping surface analysis techniques. This process allows the detection of
the atoms and molecules left by the fingerprint 18. These analysis
techniques use energetic ion or electron beams that would destroy or
disassociate the fingerprint atoms and/or molecules if they were not ion
beam mixed into the substrate 16 first. Examples of surface analysis
techniques that may be used in this method are Auger Spectroscopy, Secondary
Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM), Particle
Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
(EDS). These surface analysis techniques are discussed below.
In a fist embodiment, the Auger electron spectroscopy technique is used to
analyze the ion beam mixed fingerprint. The Auger electron spectroscopy
technique for chemical analysis of surfaces is based on the Auger process.
In general, when a core level of a surface atom is ionized by an impinging
electron beam, the atom may decay to a lower energy state through an
electronic rearrangement which leaves the atom in a double ionized state.
The energy difference between these two states is given to the ejected Auger
electron, which will have a kinetic energy characteristic of the parent
atom. When the Auger transitions occur within a few angstroms of the
surface, the Auger electrons may be ejected from the surface without loss of
energy and give rise to peaks in the secondary electron energy distribution
function. The energy and shape of these Auger features can be used to
unambiguously identify the composition of the substrate 16 surface. By
applying the Auger electron spectroscopy technique to the substrate 16, the
atoms and molecules of the fingerprints 18, which have been ion beam mixed
with the substrate 16, can be detected. A computer image of the fingerprint
18 can then be produced by assigning pixel intensities to the relative
abundance of one or more selected compositional elements, molecules, or
Referring to FIG. 3, an Auger electron spectroscopy system 50 is shown.
System 50 may be an ultrahigh vacuum system, which includes an electron gun
52 for substrate 16 excitation, and a cylindrical mirror analyzer, a double
pass analyzer or any other detector 54 for the detection of Auger electrons
56 emitted from the substrate 16 for the acquisition of spectra. System 50
also includes a computer 58 configured to receive signals indicative of
Auger electron energy from an electron multiplier 60 portion of the
cylindrical mirror analyzer 54.
Because the Auger peaks are superimposed on a rather large continuous
background, they are more easily detected by differentiating the kinetic
energy distribution function N(E). Thus the conventional Auger spectrum is
the function dN(E)/dE. Electron differentiation is readily accomplished with
a velocity analyzer by superimposing a small AC voltage on the energy
selecting voltage and synchronously detecting the output of the electron
multiplier 60. The peak-to-peak magnitude of an Auger peak in a
differentiated spectrum generally is directly related to the surface
concentration of the element, which produces the Auger electrons 56.
Quantitative analysis may be accomplished by comparing the peak heights
obtained from an unknown specimen with those from pure elemental standards
or from compounds of known composition.
Software associated with computer 58 provides computer 58 with the ability
to acquire digital chemical mapping of elements from their Auger peak
intensities. The software also allows small points chosen from a digitally
collected Secondary Electron Detector (SED) image to be analyzed. In an
exemplary embodiment, system 50 includes a commercially available Physical
Electronics (PHI) Model 595 Scanning Auger Spectrometer, modified with a
commercially available RBD Enterprises, Inc. model 137 computer control.
Also, computer 58 may include commercially available RBD Enterprises, Inc.
AugerScan software, which maps element peaks, and AugerMap software, which
provides an image of surface chemistry (e.g., an image of the fingerprint
18). It will be appreciated that other commercially available components may
be used for the same purpose.
Using the ion beam mixing method described above, sample fingerprints have
been implanted and photographed. These samples have also been analyzed in an
Auger spectrometer. This was done to determine elements present on the
substrate in the fingerprint area after ion implantation. With this
information it was possible to produce a computer generated map of the
fingerprint using atomic concentrations of an indicator element found to be
unique in the fingerprint lines.
FIG. 4 illustrates enhanced fingerprint 18 on a glass substrate 16 as a
result of the ion implantation process described above. The fingerprint
material was ion beam mixed into the glass substrate. After implantation,
the fingerprint 18 was not only a dark violet, but it could be rubbed or
scratched with tweezers without smearing. The slide was placed in Auger
electron spectroscopy system 50. It could now be imaged with secondary
electrons. An image of one area was maintained for hours without any
apparent loss of degradation. This would not have been possible without the
ion beam mixing process. Micro features of the fingerprint 18 were then
available for analysis.
FIG. 5 illustrates an enlarged fingerprint 18 area with three areas marked
1, 2 and 3. These correspond to areas of the substrate 16 analyzed for
chemical analysis and mapping. FIGS. 6, 7 and 8 are spectra charts for each
of the points 1, 2 and 3. In FIG. 6, note the sulfur and chlorine peaks.
Whereas in FIG. 7 for area 2, note the absence of sulfur and chlorine peaks.
FIG. 8 for area 3 has both chlorine and sulfur peaks.
FIG. 9 is an image generated from the mapping of chlorine peaks of a
fingerprint 18 collected with a carbon signal at very low magnification. The
image of FIG. 9 would appear on the video monitor of computer 58. The bright
area in the middle is the normal collection of the detector 54. The darker
area represents the non-linear response of the larger detector 54 area. It
will be recognized that the Auger detector 54 could be modified to have a
linear response over a larger area.
In the example of FIGS. 4-9, the spectra from the ion beam mixed fingerprint
18 were used to determine elements present on the substrate 16 that indicate
presence of a fingerprint area after ion implantation. In this example, the
element was selected as chlorine. It will be appreciated that other elements
of the fingerprint 18 can be selected for mapping as well. In addition, or
as an alternative, the spectra from the ion beam mixed fingerprint 18 can be
used to map the elements of the substrate 16 to form a "negative" image of
the fingerprint 18. That is, rather than mapping elements in the fingerprint
18, the elements of the substrate 16 can be mapped to produce an image of
elements in the substrate 16 that are not the fingerprint 18. The positive
and negative images of the fingerprint 18 may be used separately, or the two
images may be combined to create an enhanced image.
Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)
In a second embodiment, the SIMS surface analysis technique is used to
analyze the ion beam mixed fingerprint 18. In applying the SIMS process, an
energetic primary ion beam sputters the substrate 16 surface containing the
ion beam mixed fingerprint 18. Secondary ions formed in this sputtering
process are extracted from the substrate 16 and analyzed in a
double-focusing mass spectrometer system. The lateral distribution of the
ions is maintained through the spectrometer so that the mass resolved image
of the secondary ions can be projected into several types of image
detectors. Alternatively, microfocusing the primary ion beam permits
analysis in ion microprobe mode. A commercially available quadropole SIMS
analyzer, such as that commercially available from PHI, may be used to
perform the SIMS process.
There are certain substrate 16 requirements with the use of the SIMS
process. The substrate 16 may include conductors and some insulators. The
substrate 16 is preferably at least 2.5 cm in diameter and less than 6 mm
thick. In addition the substrate 16 is preferably be vacuum compatible.
The SIMS process has some unique advantages. These include excellent
detection limits, excellent depth resolution, full periodic table coverage,
rapid ion image acquisition capabilities and has three-dimensional analysis
depth profiling and elemental maps.
Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS)
In a third embodiment, the TOF-SIMS surface analysis technique is used to
analyze the ion beam mixed fingerprint 18. In the TOF-SIMS method, a
focused, short-pulsed primary ion beam sputters the top surface layer of the
substrate 16. The secondary ions produced in this sputtering process are
extracted from the substrate 16 and injected into a time-of-flight mass
spectrometer. The ions are dispersed in time according to their velocity,
which is proportional to their mass-to-charge ratio [m/z]. The TOF-SIMS
technique is capable of detecting secondary ions produced over a large mass
range (typically 0 to approximately 5000 atomic mass units) and performs
this mass analysis at relatively high mass resolutions (>6000 m/m), which
allows specific identification of molecules and molecular fragments with the
same nominal atomic mass. When used in conjunction with a computer aided
mapping interface, this technique is capable of generating a detailed image
of the ion beam mixed fingerprint 18 using these molecules and molecular
The TOF-SIMS process also has certain substrate 16 requirements. The
substrate 16 may be a conductor or an insulator, and is preferably of less
than 200 mm diameter, is preferably less than 12.5 mm thick, and is
preferably vacuum compatible.
The TOF-SIMS process also has certain unique advantages. The process is
rapid, non-destructive, sensitive elemental, inorganic and organic compound
analysis of top monolayer of a surface Imaging analysis of the lateral
distribution of selected secondary ions. It has high mass range, resolution,
and mass accuracy determinations. This technique has the potential of
identifying unique chemical characteristics of the residual material from
SIMS detection limits can be in parts per million. In addition, SIMS is a
mass spectrometer technique that can detect atomic species, molecules and
molecular fragments. A SIMS mapping of a fingerprint 18 can be produced form
trace materials such as motor oil, gunpowder or TNT. As a result, this
technique could further enhance the information obtainable from the
fingerprint 18 by providing another link to the person leaving it through
the evidence of the materials they have handled.
Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)
In a fourth embodiment, the PIXE surface analysis technique is used to
analyze the ion beam mixed fingerprint. In this technique, a charged
particle, such as a proton, interacts with atoms in the substrate 16. When a
collision occurs, it results in a cascade of electrons from higher orbitals
of the atoms in the substrate 16, with the subsequent emission of an X-ray
equal to the energy difference between the two energy levels. This method of
de-excitation is appropriately called "x-ray emission". This technique can
detect concentration levels as low as parts per billion. The application of
PIXE to map an ion beam mixed fingerprint 18 would further lower the
detection limits and provide evidence where none is now available.
Secondary Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
In a fifth embodiment, the SEM and EDS techniques are used to analyze the
ion beam mixed fingerprint 18. In the SEM technique, a finely focused
electron beam is scanned across the surface of the substrate 16 to generate
secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, and characteristic X-rays.
These signals are then collected to form SEM images of the substrate 16.
Features seen in the SEM images can then be analyzed for elemental
composition using EDS. EDS is applicable for all elements with an atomic
number greater than boron. Most elements can be detected at concentrations
at or greater than 0.1%. In an exemplary embodiment, the commercially
available Amray model 2000 may be used for the SEM/EDS analysis.
In any of the embodiments described hereinabove, it is possible to vary the
computer mapping process of the substrate 16 to produce an image or
facsimile of the fingerprint 18. It is probable that additional ion beam
sputtering, ion beam etching of the surface layer of the substrate 16 will
further reveal or enhance the ion beam mixed fingerprint 18. It is also
possible to use any other analysis technique that is aided by the ion beam
process, ion beam mixing, or ion implantation method. The analysis
techniques discussed above may be used independently, or may be used in
combination to create an enhanced image of the fingerprint 18. For example,
a mapped image of the ion beam mixed fingerprint 18 using Auger electron
spectroscopy technique may be combined, compared, or contrasted with a
mapped image of the ion beam mixed fingerprint 18 using the SIMS surface
analysis technique to create an enhanced image.
The method and apparatus described herein allow the detection of latent
fingerprints at concentration levels that are orders of magnitude lower than
previously possible. Because this is a computer aided atomic mapping of the
ion beam mixed elements of the fingerprint, detection levels are far lower
then those needed for visual identification. In certain embodiments
described herein, a fingerprint can be produced form trace materials such as
motor oil, gunpowder or TNT. As a result, this technique could further
enhance the information obtainable from the fingerprint by providing another
link to the person leaving it through the evidence of the materials they
have handled. A further benefit of the ion implantation process is that the
fingerprint is permanently fixed in the substrate and can serve as a
While the invention has been described with reference to preferred
embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various
changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof
without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many
modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the
teachings of the invention without departing from the essential scope
thereof. Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the
particular embodiments disclosed as the best mode contemplated for this
invention, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling
within the scope of the appended claims.
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