UPDATES ON CLPEX.com
No major updates on the
website this week.
we looked at several references on the use of nanoparticles
for latent print development.
we learn of the passing of Carey Chapman.
Carey had just accepted a job -- a new career -- as a paralegal with a law
firm in Washington, DC, and was in the process of moving. He had been in his
hometown of Davenport, Iowa, for the past few years. When the new offer
came, he made arrangements for an apartment in DC and left on the drive from
Davenport. Carey never made it. He was found in his hotel room en route by
the motel maid. Autopsy results have not been released, but it appears to be
accidental death due to alcohol toxicity.
Carey was a good fingerprint examiner and a passionate historian of
fingerprint matters, formerly serving as the IAI Historian. He was a good
friend and will be missed greatly.
-Pat and Kasey Wertheim
History of the IAI
by Carey Chapman
Reprinted from Lightning Powder's (now Armor
Minutić Issue #50
(references to past membership statistics have been removed)
The International Association for Identification (IAI) is a professional
nonprofit corporation dedicated to the advancement of a number of forensic
disciplines by providing professional, comprehensive educational
opportunities to its members. These educational opportunities include a
scientific publication titled Journal of Forensic Identification, an annual
conference, and regional training seminars. The chartered divisions hold
educational seminars as well.
Presently , the IAI is comprised of over 4000 members from the
United States and fifty-one other countries. It is managed by a thirteen
member Board of Directors, which includes the immediate Past President as
Chairman. The officers consist of President, four Vice Presidents,
International Representative, Sergeant-at-Arms, Division Representative, and
Historian. In addition, the IAI has an Executive Secretary, Editor, Legal
Counsel and Librarian.
In 1914, Inspector Harry W. Caldwell of the Oakland, California, Police
Department conceived the idea of an identification association to further
the aims of the profession. In 1915, he took it upon himself to write
numerous letters to bureaus of identification asking them to meet in the
city of Oakland for the purpose of forming an organization.
As a result, the "International Association for Criminal Identification"
was founded. The membership was comprised of Bertillon Clerks who were
converting to the science of fingerprint identification, usually by self
study. The first meeting was held at the Poodle Dog Cafe in Oakland,
California on October 9, 1915, with Caldwell as the presiding officer.
Others in attendance and considered founding fathers were Adolph Juel of the
San Francisco Police Department; Clarence Morrill, Police Clerk and Captain
C. D. Lee, both from the Berkeley Police Department. The talks and meetings
were between October 9th and the 13th, held at the Oakland City Hall. One
particular highlight of the first meeting was the definition of "Objects and
Principles," which is:
"Let Progress, Truth, Faith, Justice and Faithful Service be the
watchwords of our profession, so that when the time of retirement comes, we
will conceive that reward, which in fact is the greatest reward one can
receive, the knowledge that we have done our task well and have never
knowingly or willfully wronged a fellow human."
At the fourth Annual Convention in Kansas City, Missouri, June 11-14,
1918, the word "criminal" was dropped in recognition of the great volume of
noncriminal work by ID bureaus.
On December 22, 1919, after the fifth Annual Convention under the laws of
the State of Delaware, the International Association for Identification was
incorporated. The Officers listed on the documentation are President: Harry
W. Caldwell, Oakland; First Vice President: John M. Shea, St. Louis;
Secretary-Treasurer: A. J. Reno, Leavenworth; Editor: R. H. Hudspeth,
Lansing (Kansas); Sgt.-at-Arms: J. H. Berry, San Bernardino; Directors: J.
A. Casey, Baltimore; W. J. Hughes, Dayton; C. S. Morrill, Sacramento; James
Anderson, Vancouver (Canada); and Maurice B. O'Neil, New Orleans.
At the seventh Annual Convention in Washington DC, September 21-24, 1921,
the IAI achieved considerable attention from the highest level of the United
States Government. Members attending the conference were received at the
White House and it was during this meeting that the inked fingerprints of
President Harding were recorded. This level of influence was maintained for
decades, as documents reveal communications between the IAI and Presidents
Roosevelt and Truman.
In 1924, the Science and Practice Committee was formed to provide
technical assistance to its members. Their sole mission was to assist in the
classification of "doubtful patterns."
By 1927, at the twelfth Annual Convention, members were already in
pursuit of excellence. A speech given by Clarence S. Morrill called
"Speculative Identification" was well received. Mr. Morrill emphasized,
"that we should not guess in our work but must be positive in making an
identification, regardless of what we are identifying."
By 1929, the IAI had grown into a large professional association as the
following committees were in place and functioning: Membership; Resolutions;
Credentials; Legislative; Science and Practice; Auditing; Ethics; and Press
and Compliments. Additionally, all states had regional vice presidents,
currently titled regional representatives. The countries of Australia,
Denmark, and Germany had vice presidents as well.
During the period from 1933 to 1937, the IAI published its second journal
called "Sparks from the Anvil." (A review of the front covers reveals the
broad range of forensic disciplines the IAI had encompassed.) A little known
fact is that in 1916, Harry W. Caldwell published the first journal of the
IAI called International Association Outlook Journal. In a relatively short
time, it was discontinued due to a lack of finances.
The IAI had associations with other publications, however. Its next
journal was simply titled, News Letter, and was published from 1938 to 1950.
The first Identification News was published in 1950. The publication has
gone through other changes to reach the current Journal of Forensic
During WWII, the IAI encountered its most controversial issue since
inception. An alleged fingerprint fabrication was brought to the attention
of the Board of Directors. This was associated with the Sir Harry Oakes
murder case in the Bahamas. The Board of Directors attempted to charge and
try a member but the charges were dropped as the allegations could not be
In 1958, the IAI established the John A. Dondero Memorial Award in honor
of Mr. Dondero. Conceptualized by his family and adopted by the Board of
Directors, this award is the highest honor an IAI member can receive. It is
awarded for the most significant and valuable contribution in the area of
identification and allied sciences during the calendar year immediately
preceding each Annual Conference.
In 1973, after a three year study, the IAI adopted the policy, "There is
no minimum number of points required to effect a positive identification."
The Latent Print Certification Program, a rigorous testing process
validating a specific body of knowledge, the science of fingerprints, was in
place in 1977. By 1990, a Crime Scene Certification Program was functioning
with a very comprehensive testing process. Certifications are awarded at
three levels, Crime Scene Technician, Crime Scene Analyst, and Senior Crime
Your modern day IAI has grown into one of the most prestigious
professional associations in the world. At the 83rd Annual Conference in
Little Rock, Arkansas, over 800 members were in attendance with
representation from the United States and 26 foreign countries.
The future of the International Association for Identification is only
limited by the imagination of its greatest resource, "Our Members." Harry
Caldwell once said the best seat at any of our conferences was the seat
taken by its member in the audience (not the head table) for the one thing
only, simply to learn.
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