we look at the results of voting and we look at the
IAI update by Joe Polski.
CLPEX discussion results on the term "Major Case"
prints and alternative phrases
During the week of October 10-16, 2005, the concept of changing from the
term "Major Case Prints" (MCP's) to another term, as well as which
terms to adopt were voted on at the CLPEX.com
message board. Below are the results of voting, in the form of a letter to
After much discussion on the CLPEX.com message board followed by a week to vote
on the topic, the members of the website have voted.
The split was almost equal regarding whether to change terms or stay with Major
Case Prints. (47% - 52%)
Most felt that if a new term were to be implemented, that they would not
necessarily choose a term based solely on the fact that it had a catchy acronym.
(69% - 30%)
The clear winner in terms of phrases WITH an acronym was Complete Palmar
Exemplars (COMPLEX) card. (30%)
There was more diversity when voting on non-acronym terms, with the two
favorites being Complete Friction Ridge Exemplars (CFRE’s) and Full Case Prints
(FCP’s) Two additional e-mail votes were received for CFRE’s and one additional
e-mail vote for FCP’s. (33% - 33%)
For additional details or to view the 50+ posts on this topic, visit
www.clpex.com and click on the “message board” link on the left column.
I hope this helps us narrow the scope of our recommendation to NIST.
Joe Polski recently distributed the IAI Update containing the following items of
interest to Detail readers:
2006 IAI Membership Directory
We are in the process of
assembling the 2006 Directory so please take a minute to review your information
as presented in the 2005 directory and let us know as soon as possible of any
changes. All data will be sent to the printer around the middle of November so
changes reported after that time will not be reflected in the 2006 Directory.
Thanks for your assistance.
NIJ Fast Capture Grant Awards
The National Institute of Justice
(NIJ) has finished evaluating applications from bidders to develop prototype
applications for a fast capture type of livescan. This technology would be
extremely useful in processing many people in a short period of time, say for
example, processing through immigration checkpoints at airports etc. Thanks to
Peter Komarinski, Chair of the IAI’s AFIS Committee and to Chris Miles from NIJ
for this information.
The requirements for that project are as follows:
Fast Capture of Rolled-Equivalent
Fingerprints and Palm Prints
4 new awards at NIJ
• Requirements represent a major step forward
in finger and palm print capture technology:
• Capture of 10
rolled-equivalent fingerprints in 15 seconds or less;
• Capture of both palms
in1 minute and less;
• Meets or exceeds FBI &
• Produces a working
device suitable for independent test in 18 months; and is
• Affordable, rugged,
portable, relatively unobtrusive in size, and deployable
in the near future.
Awards were made to:
Cross Match (Formerly
Smith’s Detection Inc.)
Flexible polymer plastic 2-dimensional sensor
array on a polymer foil base substrate. The Polymer foil is thin and elastic
and can be applied to any 1- dimensional curved surface designed for optimum
capture geometry of a non-rolled finger or palm.
A proof-of-concept 64 by 64-pixel sensor has already been developed and
tested. The ASIC readout will have to be designed and produced.
Point of Contact: Jack Carver (USA)/Uwe Richter (Germany)
TBS North America Inc.
Patent pending ‘Segment ImagingTM’ system is
based on touchless, optoelectronics technology using customized hardware and
software components. Software system includes algorithms for hardware
calibration and for real-time image quality control.
Development goals include enrolling cooperative subjects with no or minimal
operator involvement, support for non-cooperative enrollment, and capture of
all 10 rolled equivalent prints within a 15 second time frame, and within 5
seconds for subsequent enrollments.
of Contact: Bill Long
Proposed system constructs a visual
3-dimensional model of both hands, including palms, fingerprints,
fingertips, and sides of the fingers.
• Overlay images from multiple cameras on a
complete 3-D model of both hands using active models to normalize for pose;
• Extract ridge detail based on contrast
assessment under varying illumination effects; and,
• Translate 3-D images to standardized
Based on DARPA autonomous computing modules.
Segmentation algorithm based on Face Recognition PIE datasets.
Point of Contact: Latanya Sweeney
of Kentucky (Funded Directly by DHS)
A calibration pattern will be positioned
inside the box, such that the cameras can automatically calibrate themselves
prior to each scan eliminating the need for operator assistance. A
structured light illumination system will acquire a 3-D surface scan of a
hand. Once the hand’s pose is determined, a flash-style projection source
will project a single structured-light pattern onto the hand with the
component cameras each acquiring a high-resolution, digital photograph.
A rolled-equivalent print will be established by morphing the 3-D skin model
to a 2-D surface mimicking the process of rolling an inked finger.
Because the proposed system will use commodity cameras, the hardware
involved will be low cost with future iterations being compact and easily
Point of Contact: Lawrence Hasselbrook
Forensic Science Communications
The October 2005 issue of
Forensic Science Communications has been posted to the FBI Internet
site. The issue can be viewed at
Note especially the link titled
FBI Laboratory Specialized Training Program
which goes to a page listing many upcoming courses being offered by the FBI
Laboratory Division. For more information please contact:
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Quality Assurance and Training Unit
Crime Scene Certification
The Board of Directors
recently approved a request by the Crime Scene Certification Board to change
the titles of the certificants of that program as follows:
Old title: Crime Scene Technician (CST); New title: Certified Crime Scene
Old title: Crime Scene Analyst (CSA); New title: Certified Crime Scene
Old title: Senior Crime Scene Analyst (SCSA); New title: Certified Senior
Crime Scene Analyst (CSCSA)
In addition, the following change was made in the timetable for
examinations: An applicant has 90 days to take the examination after being
approved for testing. In the past there was a rather indeterminate amount
of time during which the applicant was expected to take the test. This
policy sets 90 days as the maximum time allowed within which to take the
test after being approved for testing.
These changes are effective immediately.
National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Fingerprint Research Grant Awards
NIJ recently announced the
awarding of several projects involving fingerprint research. As you know,
there were a number of IAI members involved in developing the specifications
for the solicitation that led to these research proposals and also in
evaluating the subsequent submissions. The awards can be viewed by
following the link listed below.
The data and information generated by these projects will undoubtedly
further enhance the credibility of fingerprint identification and we look
forward to the results:
NIJ’s FY 05 Friction Ridge Research
Title: Quantitative Assessment of the Individuality of Friction
Grantee: Research Foundation of SUNY
Abstract: The research proposes to increase understanding of the
discriminative power of friction ridge patterns. Two tasks will be
addressed: (i) assess existing statistical models of friction ridge
individuality and propose new models for error rates,
probability of match /exclusion and strength of evidence, e.g., the strength
of a match can be expressed using newer statistical techniques developed in
the allied forensic disciplines of DNA matching and speaker verification,
and (ii) study the issue of quantity and quality of friction ridge data that
need to be present for matching, e.g., how does the number and combinations
of minutiae present
affect individualization? In the first task
different models of individuality and their assumptions will be compared,
e.g., traditional models which lead to an assertion that the probability of
duplication is a small x% and new probabilistic models based on
distributions of similarity values conditioned on belonging to the same or
different individual. The quantity-quality study will parameterize error
rates on the basis of minutiae available and their combinations. Methods to
be employed will be software-based and will include both existing algorithms
for minutiae extraction/matching as well as newer algorithms for extracting
fingerprint characteristics. Examples of the latter
are: compound minutiae consisting of minutiae combinations, counting the
numbers and combinations of minutiae that occur, extracting features not
automatically extracted at present, etc. Resources to conduct empirical
studies of friction ridge prints will include a recently constructed
research database of friction ridge patterns collected from a population of
twins– this database, prepared by latent print examiners contains ten
prints, palm-prints, and latent prints, will also help determine relative
similarity between identical twins and the general population. Deliverables
will include software to quantify the strength of evidence and software for
extracting and counting friction ridge characteristics. The work will be
conducted with the guidance of latent print examiners at federal, state and
Title: Analysis of Level III Characteristics at High Resolutions
Grantee: International Biometric Group, LLC
Amount: $461,495.00 (Phase 1)
Abstract: International Biometric Group (IBG), Aprilis Inc., and the
Crime Scene Services Section of the Massachusetts State Police (MSP-CSSS)
propose a research project that evaluates (1) the frequency and permanence
of Level III characteristics and (2) tools that enable capture, processing,
and statistical evaluation of these characteristics' quality and strength.
The Project evaluates card-based and live-scanned fingerprint data at
resolutions from 500dpi to 4000dpi, assessing the degree to which increased
resolution enhances the utility of Level III characteristics. Through
comparison of Level III characteristics derived from genuine and impostor
populations, the Project generates data that describes the discriminating
power of Level III characteristics. The Project further compares Level III
matching results with Level II results to assess multimodal correlation and
relative matching power. Expanding on existing research techniques – and
utilizing Aprilis capture hardware and matching software – evaluation design
encompasses the following:
1. Digitization of friction ridge data from several thousand
tenprint cards, selected as paired records with temporal variation.
2. Processing and
comparison of card-based fingerprints for location and
segmentation of Level III characteristics, generating data on
friction ridge permanence.
conversions, and digitization of multiple fingerprint
impressions at 500dpi, 1000dpi, 2000dpi, and 4000dpi from a
population of approximately 1000 test subjects (comprising
approximately 150,000 samples).
and regional sampling of friction ridge data to establish
robustness within minimal ridge areas.
Cross-comparative processing of live-scan samples, generating
data on ridge distinctiveness.
6. Analysis of
Level III characteristic performance in conjunction with and
relative to Level II characteristics.
7. Optimization of
Aprilis software tools.
Study of Level III characteristics is timely as
performance requirements for civil biometric systems (e.g. national ID,
border management) are approaching the limits of Level II algorithms. The
justice community has a vested interest in the continued collection of
fingerprints for Civil Identification applications; as such databases have
utility in law enforcement scenarios. This Project will help to quantify
the discriminating power of Level III friction ridge data, support
technology implementation decisions, and improve tools available for use in
friction ridge applications.
Title: Adding Human Expertise to the Quantitative Analysis of
Grantee: Indiana University
Abstract: Quantitative approaches to fingerprint identification rely
on different approaches derived from minutiae detection, orientation
computations and other sources of information. These approaches extract out
relevant features that can be matched across prints. We propose toimprove
upon these approaches by incorporating data derived from expert latent print
examiners. We have developed a software tool that provides a very rich
description of the expert's matching process, and we extract from this data
elements of expertise that can be incorporated into quantitative analyses of
fingerprints. We demonstrate how this data can be used to identify regions
of interest using variations on support vector machines, how we can use the
temporal information to identify the nature of the information used by
experts, and how data reduction techniques reveal the fundamental features
used by experts, which may be more than just minutiae. Finally, we integrate
across different levels of a print to use the 'gist' or category of a print
to improve the feature extraction of parts of the print. Our particular
quantitative methods take advantage of our expert data, but the data derived
from experts could be used to improve many different quantitative
approaches, and we will make our data available to other researchers for use
in their statistical models.
Title: Latent-Print Detection by Macro-Raman Imaging
Grantee: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Through and Interagency Agreement
Amount: $299,000.00 (Phase 1)
Abstract: Fingerprints deposited on many surfaces often go undetected once
latent prints age over a few hours, especially when exposed to UV radiation.
The ability to develop latent fingerprints is often influenced by many
factors including print-type (clean/eccrine through oily/sebaceous),
humidity, light, surface matrix, etc. Recent findings on the fundamental
chemistry of superglue fuming, a prominent method for developing prints on
non-porous surfaces, revealed methods capable of enhancing the ability of
develop latent fingerprints that would otherwise go undetected. In many
cases, treatment of the print with vapor from 75% acetic acid dramatically
enhanced development by superglue fuming. However, this enhancement was not
effective on fingerprints exposed to UV radiation from sun or fluorescent
lighting, especially on surfaces containing iron (III). Such surfaces would
include firearms, knives, ammunition, automobiles, etc. In addition, the
enhancement method is complex and not easily amenable to field applications.
Thus, a real need exists to efficiently and effectively detect latent
fingerprints on all surfaces regardless of the print type or environmental
exposure factors. To accomplish this goal, further study is needed to better
characterize constituents and associated degradation products originating
from fingerprint secretions deposited on a range of matrices. Through an
understanding of time-related changes in fingerprint components,
discrimination between fingerprint constituents and the deposition surface
is expected to facilitate the development of enhanced friction ridge
visualization methods. Simplistic methods that increase the detection
sensitivity for macro-Raman Imaging will be targeted. With this type of
discriminatory power, an increase in the average print area and quality, as
well as in the differentiation between fresh and aged prints, are expected.
In order to exploit the anticipated findings,
researchers from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are teaming with
experts in chemical imaging – ChemImage, Corp. Currently, ChemImage is
developing a Raman-based imaging system under a TSWG initiative. The goal
this proposal is to gain a better understanding of fingerprint and
fingerprint degradation chemistry, employ methods to enhance Raman-based
latent-print visualization, and utilize the enhancement methods to modify
the ChemImage system for field applications. Such a system would enhance the
efficiency and quality of latent detection in cases involving WMD events
(non-contact print detection), assault, murder, etc.
The tasks necessary to achieve the stated goal are
complex and require a unique combination of specialists who understand
fingerprint decomposition, chemical enhancement, chemical imaging, and
imaging enhancement. ORNL proposes to team with ChemImage to develop a
macro-Raman chemical imaging methodology to accomplish the stated objective.
Title: Quantifying the Dermatoglyphic Growth Patterns in Children
Grantee: Ultra Scan Corporation
Corporation, a pioneer in the use of ultrasound for livescan fingerprint
imaging with over 15 years experience in
researching, commercializing, integrating, and deploying fingerprint
identification systems, proposes to contribute to the scientific body of
friction ridge structure knowledge. To date, this body of knowledge does not
provide scientific understanding regarding the growth pattern of
fingerprints to enable the positive identification of children over a period
of several years.
Ultra-Scan will develop a predictive model that is a
2-way mapping (from younger to older, and older to younger) of the minutiae
location, both spatial and orientation, of two sets of fingerprints captured
at different points in time. The predictive model will be based on a control
group of several hundred children ranging from age 2 to 18, repeatedly
imaging their fingerprint ridge structure over the course of five years.
The establishment of a 2-way fingerprint predictive
growth model will assist latent examiners in the identification of young
children, improve the accuracy of automated latent search engines, and
expand the scientific body of knowledge regarding fingerprint patterns.
Ultra-Scan will disseminate the resulting data analysis to the broader
science community in addition to the NIJ, through
peer review publications and technical presentations. Ultra-Scan will
leverage expertise and existing equipment to deliver statistically
significant findings at minimal cost.
Title: Improving Methods for Fingerprint Development on Hand-Guns
Grantee: Israeli National Police (Through an Interagency Agreement with
Abstract: This project will involve two stages of research. In the
first stage, the factors that affect the life, durability, and recovery of
fingerprints on hand-guns will be studied. After gaining a better
understanding of what happens to the fingerprints, the second stage will
attempt to develop more successful methods for fingerprint development on
The major portion of this second stage will
involve research into optimization of the cyanoacrylate method. Today, this
is the method of choice for processing hand-guns and throughout the years,
this method has been optimized in regards to development conditions and
methods. However, the cyanoacrylate used was always either ethyl or
methyl. Today, there are seven or eight types of cyanoacrylates available
(butyl, octyl, etc.). Little research has been done into choosing and using
the best cyanoacrylate type for the type of surface being processed. Just
as different types of cyanoacrylate have to be adapted to the material being
glued, the same may hold true for fingerprint processing.
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Until next Monday morning, don't work too hard or too little.
Have a GREAT week!