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THE WEEKLY DETAIL
M
onday, January 5, 2004

The purpose of the Detail is to help keep you informed of the current state of affairs in the latent print community, to provide an avenue to circulate original fingerprint-related articles, and to announce important events as they happen in our field.


Breaking NEWz you can UzE...
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Study Contradicts Constipation-Fingerprint Link -REUTERS, US - Jan. 1, 2004. Does a particular fingerprint pattern identify children who are likely to develop severe constipation.!?

Fingerprint-Recognition Clocks Help Cut Overtime - AL.COM, AL - Dec. 31, 2003 ...County officials hope new fingerprint recognition time clocks can help cut overtime in half among its 4,000 hourly employees...

Judge Rejects Fingerprint Defense - BBC NEWS, UK - De. 24, 2003 ...Shirley McKie has won the latest round in her £750,000 damages action against the Scottish Executive...

Fingerprints ID A Quirk in the Law - FT. WAYNE JOURNAL-GAZETTE - Dec. 21, 2003 ...Juveniles exempt from database even if they might help solve crime...

Good morning! via the Weekly Detail.

I hope everyone had a wonderful holiday break, and is ready to get back in the swing of things on a busy Monday morning!  Before the holidays, we examined the dissenting opinion in U.S. v. Crisp.  This week we take a much less technical subject, and preserve some information that was recently associated with the sale of a Family Collection of Francis Galton's works.  I believe this was offered for sale on Ebay last year, and as you can see it involves much more information than just Galton's contributions to fingerprints.  However, there is valuable information that I thought someone might use in a research project on Galton, and quite a few references which I have never seen and probably will never see again!  Here preserved for posterity sake is a short narrative on Sir Francis Galton by an anonymous author, and slightly rearranged for posting in the Detail and CLPEX.com.

___________________________


Galton, Francis (1822-1911).

Fingerprints as a System of Personal Identification

Galton is perhaps best known for his development of the fingerprint system as a means of personal identification, an achievement rooted in his interest in classifying and comparing human traits. The need for a reliable means of personal identification had become a pressing one in the nineteenth century with the increasing mobility and anonymity of European populations, the institutionalization of law enforcement, and colonialist expansion into Asia and Africa. This need had given rise to Alphonse Bertillon’s elaborate system of criminal identification, which used precise measurements of several body parts coupled with photography; however, Galton was critical of the system’s shortcomings. In the early 1880s Galton learned of the independent fingerprint studies of Henry Faulds and Sir William Herschel (a descendant of the astronomer), both of whom had suggested the use of fingerprints in criminal identification. Faulds had classified fingerprints into the basic categories of whorl, loop and arch (still used today), and had proposed their use in studies of heredity, while Herschel had pointed out the crucial fact that fingerprints do not alter with age. After collecting and studying massive amounts of fingerprint data, Galton read his first paper on the subject in 1890, following it with additional articles and three books. The most important of these was Finger Prints (75), which established the importance of fingerprints in both biological and criminological investigation. “This masterful work of 13 chapters began with the history of fingerprinting, gave detailed descriptions of the various features of fingerprints, their classification, their persistence, evidential value, peculiarities, indexing, inheritance, and their relationship to race and class. . . . The book also set forth detailed instructions for those who wished to apply the technique, as well as recommending equipment and materials such as rollers, dyes, and the best methods for rendering accurate fingerprint impressions photographically” (Gillham, p. 241) and 71-83).  But his contributions to science were certainly not limited to fingerprints. 

Galton, a first cousin of Charles Darwin, also “made significant contributions to both genetics and psychology. An early proponent of statistical analysis as applied to mental and behavioral phenomena, he developed the correlation method in statistics. He was also an indefatigable explorer and an inquirer into human intelligence, and he made important contributions to the fields of meteorology, anthropometry, and physical anthropology as well.

“Galton, convinced that preeminence in various fields resulted principally from hereditary factors, was inclined to oppose those who stressed environmental determination of either intelligence or character. Interest in the role of heredity led him to introduce the method of twin studies to examine the different contributions of nature and nurture. He also inquired into racial differences and was one of the first to employ questionnaire and survey methods, which he used to investigate mental imagery in different groups. He coined the word eugenics, and his work laid the foundation for the modern eugenics movement” (http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~tonya/309m/class/ paper4/bowser/sfg.htm).

Scientific Instrumentation

Galton was one of the intellectual giants of his time, despite a desultory education that ended at the age of 22, when the death of his father left him a wealthy man. He was mechanically minded and had considerable skill as an inventor—his first publication (1) describes his design for a printing electric telegraph, and he invented a heliostat that was manufactured commercially as “Galton’s Sun Signal”. (2) He also designed several scientific devices to aid him in his anthropometric and statistical researches. (3-5)

Travel and Exploration

Galton first achieved fame as a traveler and an explorer of southwestern Africa, a region then little known to Europeans. Galton’s reports of his first South African journey (1850-52) earned him the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1853, and later reports led to his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1860. Besides accounts of his travels, Galton also published works containing useful information for travelers. (6-14)

Meteorology

In the 1860s Galton became interested in meteorology, particularly in weather forecasting. It was here that his statistical interests and abilities first made themselves manifest. (15-16)

Heredity and Eugenics

The main focus of Galton’s long career, however, was in the fields of heredity and eugenics, a term Galton introduced in 1883 in his Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (60). His interest in these fields was crystallized by the publication in 1859 of Darwin’s Origin of Species, which, as Galton stated in his autobiographical Memories of my Life (84) “made a marked epoch in my own mental development, as it did in human thought generally.” The use of statistical methods was fundamental to Galton’s work in these areas: believing that virtually anything can be quantified, he approached his investigations from that angle, and devised ingenious ways to analyze data in both numeric and graphic form. In so doing, he helped usher in the “statistical revolution” of the 1880s, in which “a series of remarkable men [Galton among them] constructed an empirical and conceptual methodology that provided a surrogate for experimental control and in effect dissipated the fog that had impeded progress [in the social sciences] for a century” (Stigler, Hist. Statistics, p. 265) and (17).

Galton’s first investigations into heredity focused on the heritability of human intelligence, a topic that engrossed him throughout his career. Convinced that human ability depended primarily on inheritance, Galton “hit upon a fairly simple device, the pedigree, one that would remain an analytical mainstay for the rest of his life” (Gillham, p. 155). Galton charted the pedigrees of distinguished men and compared this data to the population of Europe as a whole, noting a much higher frequency of “eminence” in the distinguished families. After publishing some preliminary papers on the subject in Macmillan’s (18), Galton issued his Hereditary Genius (19) in which “he used the same general method of gathering data on a much grander scale and applied the ‘bell curve’ as an evaluative technique for the first time. He had been introduced to ‘the Gaussian Law of Probable Error’ by his old friend William Spottiswoode. . . . Galton now familiarized himself with the work of the Belgian scientist Adolph Quetelet, who first applied the normal distribution to human measurement. . . . Overall Galton’s results in Hereditary Genius seemed to support his thesis that talent and character were largely determined by nature” (Gillham, pp. 157-58, 167). To the Victorian reading public, still trying to absorb the implications of Darwinian theory, this idea was both heretical and shocking: “While most would agree that physical and some mental traits were inherited in animals, they were unprepared to acknowledge this to be true of human beings. The thesis Galton promoted was that human talent and character differed little from the more mundane traits discussed by Darwin to illustrate the selection and breeding of domestic animals and cultivated plants. They should therefore be subject to selection themselves” (Gillham, p. 156).

In English Men of Science (20), published five years later, Galton extended his research on the heritability of talents to include the circumstances under which men of achievement are nurtured. In an attempt to clarify the relative importance of nature and nurture (a phrase Galton is credited with coining; see Gillham, p. 192), he compiled a seven-page questionnaire—a novel data-gathering technique at the time—covering both hereditary and environmental factors. He submitted the questionnaire to 180 select members of the Royal Society; the responses form the basis of further work in this area. (21-26)

As a means of assessing the roles of nature and nurture in the determination of human ability, Galton came up with the idea of studying pairs of identical and non-identical twins, a method still in use today (27).

In 1868 Charles Darwin published Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, containing his “pangenesis” theory of heredity: heritable characteristics were passed from parent to offspring via hypothetical particles (“gemmules”) thrown off by an organism’s cells. Galton sought to prove his cousin’s theory by transfusing blood from a mongrel strain of rabbits into a purebred one, hypothesizing that the “gemmules” in the transfused mongrel blood would affect the offspring of the purebred rabbits that received it. This of course proved not to be the case, and Galton reported his negative results in “Experiments in Pangenesis” (28), stating that these “negative[ed], in my opinion, beyond all doubt, the truth of the doctrine of Pangenesis.” Darwin objected to Galton’s interpretation of the pangenesis theory, and Galton responded by writing “On Blood Relationship” and “A Theory of Heredity” (29-30), positing his own theory of inheritance, albeit one heavily influenced by Darwin’s thinking. Galton adopted Darwin’s hypothesis of “patent” and “latent” hereditary elements to explain variation and reversion, but added the important concept of one-way information transfer as a means of ruling out inheritance of acquired characteristics. This paper “represented an important step in the evolution of Galton’s thinking as it meant that mankind could only be improved through selective breeding and not through environmental modifications, since these were not heritable” (Gillham, p. 180).

Galton further discussed heredity in his book Natural Inheritance (51), his greatest scientific work. This book contains “what may be described as the second best theory of heredity. [Galton] came close to deducing several of the fundamental genetic truths arrived at by Mendel. His theory of particulate inheritance with its emphasis on quantitative variation in numbers of different genetic elements actually fitted the metric characters, like stature, he analyzed. . . . On theoretical grounds, Galton had edged close to developing a whole set of important genetic concepts that would emerge early in the twentieth century. But unlike Mendel, he did not know how to test his model and there were no physical structures within the cell on which he could hang his personal and latent [hereditary] elements so far as he knew” (Gillham, pp. 258, 262). The work also contains the beginnings of what Pearson would later name Galton’s Law of Ancestral Heredity (20), as well as a report on the first directional selection experiment (“directional selection” is defined as the natural selection strategy by which one genetic variety in a population is favored while other varieties are reduced or even eliminated from the population because of their lesser fitness).

“Following the publication of Hereditary Genius, Galton’s attack on the human body and mind became two-pronged. The first prong involved the accumulation of quantitative data on easily measurable human physical parameters such as height coupled with the development of methods for their statistical analysis based principally on the properties of the normal distribution. . . . The second prong of Galton’s attack was on human personality and behavior. He wanted to develop methods for characterizing and quantifying human behavior. His desire in this regard led him into explorations as diverse as composite photography, psychology and fingerprinting. The ultimate purpose of these investigations was to establish methods for advancing the quality of the human stock. . .” (Gillham, p. 195).

“To aid his analysis, Galton unveiled a new statistical tool. He wanted a metric that would allow him to arrange any set of measurements on a single statistical scale. He discovered that if he graphed his data in a series of ranks according to the exponential function that describes the normal distribution, he obtained a graceful, sinuous curve that was concave at the bottom and convex at the top. He christened it the ‘ogive’ . . . (Gillham, p. 297). This curve is now known as the inverse normal cumulative distribution function.

To gather data for his investigations, Galton established his own Laboratory of Anthropometry, and he also initiated schemes for gathering anthropometric data, such as height and weight measurements, from a wide range of sources including schools. In 1901 he founded the journal Biometrika in conjunction with Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon; the journal was intended to “serve as a means not only of collecting under one title biological data of kind not systematically collected or published in any other periodical, but also of spreading a knowledge of such statistical theory as may be requisite for their scientific treatment” (quoted in Gillham, p. 307).

“It was [Galton’s] basic aim to distinguish between Englishmen, to investigate the differences among them and the inheritance of these differences. . . . To this end, and in the first of his departures from Quetelet, Galton turned Quetelet’s phenomenon [i.e. , method of fitting normal curves to data] to a novel use. If data from the same species arrayed themselves according to this curve and if the unity of the species could be demonstrated by showing that measurable quantities such as stature or examination scores followed the curve, then, once such a species was identified on the basis of measurable quantities, the process could be inverted with respect to qualities that eluded direct measurement! Qualities such as talent or ‘genius’ that were at most susceptible to a simple ordering could, by Galton’s method, be assigned a value on a ‘statistical scale’ . . .  Galton later called this method of analysis ‘statistics by intercomparison’ [34] and it was to become the most used (and abused) method of scaling psychological tests” (Stigler, Hist. Statistics, p. 271).

Galton’s two most significant contributions to statistics—correlation and regression to the mean—grew out of his analyses of anthropometric data. Galton came up with the concept of “regression to the mean” in the mid-1880s, while investigating the heritability of height in humans. In plotting the heights of children against their parents, Galton found that if a child’s “mid-parent” (the average of the male and female parents’ heights, with the mother’s height adjusted upwards) was taller than the mean, the child would tend to be shorter than the mid-parent by a certain ratio, whereas the opposite was true if the mid-parent was shorter than the mean. With the assistance of mathematician J. H. Dickson, Galton came up with a full mathematical formulation of this concept, which is discussed in detail in Natural Inheritance (51), his greatest scientific treatise.

The concept of correlation—defined as the measurement of how closely any two series vary relative to one another—was introduced in Galton’s paper “Co-Relations and their Measurements, Chiefly from Anthropomorphic Data” (48). “After Natural Inheritance went to press, Galton was using his anthropometric data to plot forearm length against height one day when he noticed that the problem was intrinsically the same as that of kinship. He summarized these data in one of the tables in his paper. . . . Galton extended correlation to other physical parameters such as head breadth versus head length, head length versus height, etc. He also determined the first set of correlation coefficients, using the now familiar symbol r. . . . Galton’s pathbreaking memoir of 1888 on correlation, together with his greatest scientific book, Natural Inheritance, not only were the stimuli that activated his first disciples, but would form the cornerstone of a new science, biometrics” (Gillham, p. 258) and (31-59).

Galton introduced the word “eugenics”—“a word whose dark connotations have ever since been associated with his name” (Gillman, p. 207)—in his Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (60). He defined the term as “the science of improving stock,” encompassing not only judicious selective breeding but all the various factors that give superior traits an improved chance of prevailing over inferior ones. Galton was of course concerned primarily with improving human stock, particularly in Britain: he sorted the British population into various classes based on distribution of ability and health, analyzed the likelihood of each class’s producing socially desirable offspring, and sought to promote the propagation of the “fittest” classes while discouraging the reproduction of the least fit. Critics objected that the adoption of a eugenics program would subvert an individual’s right to choose a mate at will; Galton answered these objections by investigating the restrictions already inherent in various marriage customs. Galton’s ideas were largely well received in the scientific community, and in 1904 he endowed a chair of eugenics at London University. (61-70)

Statistics and Prayer

Galton also used his statistical methods to investigate the power of prayer, concluding that prayer has no power to affect present or future events (82-83).

Autobiography and Miscellaneous Writings

Galton’s other writings include an autobiography (Memories of my Life), published when he was age 86 (84).

Galton and a few other authors also completed miscellaneous writings on anthropological and other scientific subjects (85-101).

More recent works about Galton include a 349 page text by C. Blacker on Galton’s work in Eugenics (102) and V. Hilts “Guide to Francis Galton’s Men of Science.” 

References within this narrative were based primarily on two works: Francis Galton: The Life and Work of a Victorian Genius by D. W. Forrest (1974) and A Life of Sir Francis Galton. From African Exploration to the Birth of Eugenics by Nicholas Wright Gillham (2001).

 

The references below were gleaned from a listing for sale of a Family Collection of Galton’s works, and therefore formatting may not conform to standard protocols.

REFERENCES

1.         The teletype; a printing electric telegraph. London: John Weale, June 1850. 32pp. 4 fold. plates. Orig. printed wrappers, Forrest, p. 303. Galton’s first publication. Not in OCLC.

2.         Galton’s sun-signal. Larger size, made by Messrs. Troughton and Simms, London. N.p., n.d. [1859]. 4pp. Not in OCLC.

3.         Galton’s whistles for determining the upper limits of audible sound in different persons. London: S. C. Tisley & Co., [1876]. 8pp. Reprint of article in Physics and Mechanics, South Kensington Museum Conference (London: Chapman & Hall, 1876). See Forrest, p. 307. This conference in 1876 was probably the earliest international exhibition of purely scientific instruments. Not in OCLC.

4.         Description of the process of verifying thermometers at the Kew Observatory. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 179 (1877). 6pp. Forrest, p. 307.

5.         Trace-computer. Apparat zum Auftragen von Curven, deren Ordinaten gegebene Functionen zweier anderer Curven sind. Offprint from Katalog mathematischer Modelle, Apparate und Instrumente (Munich: C. Wolf & Sohn, 1892), describing an apparatus invented by Galton, display at the first international exhibition of mathematical models, instruments and apparatus. [8]pp. This was the first international exhibition of calculating devices; see Origins of Cyberspace 287. Not in OCLC.

6.         Arts of campaigning: An inaugural lecture. . . . London: John Murray, 1855. 24pp.  Forrest, p. 303. Not in OCLC.

7.         The exploration of arid countries. Extract from Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. 2 (1858): 60-77.  Forrest, p. 303.

8.         Table for rough triangulation without the usual instruments and without calculation. N.p., 1860. Single sheet. Not in OCLC.

9.         Zanzibar. Offprint from The Mission Field 6 (1861). 121-144pp. Forrest, p. 304.

10.     Vacation tourists and notes of travel in 1860 [1861, 1862-63 ]. 3 vols., 8vo. viii, 483, [24, ads]; viii, 418, 24 (ads); viii, 524, [4, ads]pp. 14 maps. Cambridge & London: Macmillan, 1861-64. 222 x 142 mm.  Galton edited this series of travel essays, contributing an essay to the first volume (“Visit to Northern Spain at the time of the eclipse”) and prefaces to the second and third volumes. Forrest, p. 304.

11.     [with G. Back and Richard Collinson] Hints to travellers. Revised edition. London: Royal Geographic Society, 1865. 48pp. Forrest, p. 305. OCLC notes one copy of the 4th edition in the National Library of Wales.

12.     On stereoscopic maps, taken from models of mountainous countries. Offprint from J. Roy. Geog. Soc. 35 (1865). 7pp. Orig. stereoscopic photograph as frontis. Orig. printed wrappers. Forrest, p. 305.

13.     On the construction of isochronic passage-charts. Offprint from Brit. Assoc. Report 51 (1881). 2pp. plus chart. Forrest, p. 308.

14.     Souvenirs d’Egypte. Offprint from Bull. Soc. Khédiviale de Géog., 5th ser., 7 (1900). 375-80pp. Forrest, p. 315.

15.     Meteorological instructions for the use of inexperienced observers resident abroad. [N.p.: Meteorological Society, 1863]. 4pp.  Not in OCLC.

16.     On the employment of meteorological statistics in determining the best course for a ship whose sailing qualities are known. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 144 (1873). 263-274pp. Forrest, p. 306.

17.     The geometric mean, in vital and social statistics. [With:] McAlister, Donald. The law of the geometric mean. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 198 (1879). 12pp. total (Galton’s paper on pp. 1-2). Forrest, p. 308.

18.     Hereditary genius. The judges of England between 1660 and 1865. Extract from Macmillan’s Magazine (March 1869): 424-31.

19.     Hereditary genius: An inquiry into its laws and consequences. 8vo. [2], iv, [2], 390pp. 2 folding charts. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1870. First American edition.

20.     English men of science: Their nature and nurture. 8vo. [2], xiii, [1], 270 [2]pp. London: Macmillan, 1874. Norman 865. Forrest, p. 306.

21.     The average contribution of each several ancestor to the total heritage of the offspring. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 61 (1897). 401-13pp. Forrest, p. 314. G-M 239. Galton’s “Law of Ancestral Heredity,” which states that half of an individual’s hereditary makeup is supplied by his / her parents, one-quarter from grandparents, one-eighth from great-grandparents, etc.

22.     An examination into the registered speeds of American trotting horses, with remarks on their value as hereditary data. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 62 (1897). 310-15pp. Forrest, p. 315.

23.     Hereditary colour in horses. Extract from Nature 56 (1897): 598-99. Forrest, p. 314.

24.     A diagram of heredity [letter to the editor]. Extract from Nature 57 (1898): 293. Forrest, p. 315.

25.     Pedigree moth-breeding as a means of verifying certain important constants in the general theory of heredity. Offprint from Trans. Entomological Soc. London, part 1 (1887). 19-34pp. Forrest, p. 311.

26.     Notes on permanent colour types in mosaic. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 16 (1886). 145-147pp. Forrest, p. 310.

27.     Questions about twins. N.p., n.d. [1874]. 4pp. Unbound questionnaire. Not in OCLC.

28.     Experiments in pangenesis, by breeding from rabbits of a pure variety, into whose circulation blood taken from other varieties had previously been largely transfused. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 127 (1871). [1], 394-410pp. Forrest, p. 305.

29.     On blood-relationship. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 136 (1872). [1], 394-402pp. Forrest, p. 306.

30.     A theory of heredity [revised version]. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 5 (1875). 329-48pp. Forrest, p. 307.

31.     The relative supplies from town and country families, to the population of future generations. Offprint from J. Stat. Soc. London 36 (1873). 19-26pp.  Forrest, p. 306.

32.     [Prefatory remarks to “On the probability of the extinction of families,” by H. W. Watson]. Extract from J. Anthro. Inst. 4 (1874): 138-44. Forrest, p. 306.

33.     Statistics by intercomparison, with remarks on the law of frequency of error. Offprint from Phil. Mag. 49 (1875). 14pp. Forrest, p. 307.

34.     Proposal to apply for anthropological statistics from schools. Extract from J. Anthro. Inst. 3 (1874): 308-11. Forrest, p. 306.

35.     On the height and weight of boys aged 14, in town and country public schools. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 6 (1876). 174-80pp. Forrest, p. 307.

36.     Outfit for an anthropometric laboratory. N.p., n.d. [Privately printed, 1883]. 4pp. Forrest, p. 309. Not in OCLC.

37.     [with others] Final report of the anthropometric committee. Offprint from Brit. Assoc. Report (1883). 54pp. 7 plates. Forrest, p. 309.

38.     On apparatus for testing the delicacy of the muscular and other senses in different persons. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 12 (1883). 9pp.

39.     Anthropometric laboratory. . . . London: Wm. Clowes, 1884. 12, [2]pp. Forrest, p. 309. Not in OCLC.

40.     Free-will—observations and inferences. Offprint from Mind 9 (1884). 8pp. Forrest, p. 310.

41.     Family likeness in stature. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 242 (1886). 42-73pp. Forrest, p. 310.

42.     Family likeness in eye-colour. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 245 (1886). 402-16pp. Forrest, p. 310.

43.     On recent designs for anthropometric instruments. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 16 (1886). 9pp. Forrest, p. 310.

44.     Presidential address to the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, January 26, 1886. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 15 (1886). 489-99pp. Forrest, p. 310.

45.     The president’s address. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 16 (1887). 387-402pp. Forrest, p. 311.

46.     Anthropometric statistics from Amherst College, Mass., USA. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 18 (1888).

47.     Address delivered at the anniversary meeting of the Anthropological Institute. . . . Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 17 (1888). 346-54pp. Forrest, p. 311 (wrong date).

48.     Co-relations and their measurement, chiefly from anthropometric data. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 45 (1888). 135-45pp. Forrest, p. 312.

49.     Tables of observations. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 18 (1889). 420-30pp. Forrest, p. 312.

50.     Address delivered at the anniversary meeting of the Anthropological Institute. . . . Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 18 (1889). 401-19pp. Forrest, p. 312.

51.     Natural inheritance. 8vo. ix, [5], 259pp., leaf of adverts. Text diagrams. London: Macmillan, 1889. 223 x 142 mm. Forrest, p. 312.

52.     Exhibition of instruments (1) for testing perception of differences of tint, and (2) for determining reaction-time. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 19 (1889). 27-29pp. Forrest, p. 312.

53.     A new instrument for measuring the rate of movement of the various limbs. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 20 (1890). 200-204pp. Forrest, p. 312.

54.     Retrospect of work done at my anthropometric laboratory at South Kensington. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 21 (1891). 32-35pp. Forrest, p. 313.

55.     Results derived from the natality table of Korosi by employing the method of contours or isogens. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 55 (1894). 18-23pp. Forrest, p. 314.

56.     Analytical photography. Offprint from Photog. J. 25 (1900). 135-38pp. Forrest, p. 315.

57.     Biometry. Offprint from Biometrika 1 (1901). 7-10pp. Forrest, p. 315.

58.     Grades and deviates. Offprint from Biometrika 5 (1907). 400-404pp. Forrest, p. 316.

59.     The median estimate. Offprint from Brit. Assoc. Report 69 (1899). Single sheet. Forrest, p. 315.

60.     Inquiries into human faculty and its development. 8vo. xii [2], 387pp. London: Macmillan, 1883. 222 x 141 mm. A large part of the work is devoted to Galton’s investigations in experimental psychology, including sense perception and mental imagery. The frontispiece photograph shows the use of composite portraiture to arrive at an idea of the typical facial features of a particular group (consumptives, criminals, etc.). Forrest, ch. 12; p. 309. Norman 866.

61.     Inquiries into human faculty and its development. 12mo. xviii, [2], 261pp. 2 plates, text illustrations. London: J. M. Dent, [1907]. 172 x 110 mm. Third edition.

62.     Note on Australian marriage systems. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 18 (1888). 70-72pp. Forrest, p. 311 (wrong date).

63.     The possible improvement of the human breed under the existing conditions of law and sentiment. Offprint from Smithsonian Report (1901). [2], 523-38pp. Forrest, p. 315.

64.     Index to achievements of near kinsfolk of some of the Fellows of the Royal Society. [Suffolk: R. Clay & Sons, 1904]. 19pp. Forrest, p. 316. Not in OCLC.

65.     Eugenics: Its definition, scope and aims. Separate printing of a paper published in Nature 70 (1904) and Sociological Papers 1 (1905). 8pp. See Forrest, p. 316. OCLC notes one copy at Brown University.

66.     Restrictions in marriage. Studies in national eugenics. Eugenics as a factor in religion. Followed by an abstract of an earlier memoir, “Eugenics: Its definition, scope and aims.” Preprint from Sociological Papers Vol. 2. 55pp. See Forrest, p. 316.

67.     Probability, the foundation of eugenics. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907. 30pp. Forrest, p. 316. OCLC notes 30 copies in libraries.

68.     [with Edgar Schuster]. Noteworthy families (modern science). 8vo. xlii, 96, [2]pp. London: John Murray, 1906. The co-author, Schuster, was the first recipient of the fellowship in eugenics endowed by Galton at the University of London in 1904-5. Their book “canvassed Fellows of the Royal Society . . . seeking evidence for the heritability of high ability. . . . [The book’s] main conclusion was the noteworthiness diminished rapidly ‘as the distance of kinship to the F.R.S. increases’” (Gillham, p. 332). Forrest, p. 316.

69.     [Address on] Eugenics. Extract from Westminster Gaz., June 26, 1908. 2 sheets, unbound. Forrest, p. 317.

70.     Essays in eugenics. 8vo. [6], 109pp. London: Eugenics Education Society, 1909.  First edition in book form of seven previously published essays on the subject, printed in chronological order. Forrest, p. 317.

71.     Methods of indexing finger-marks. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 49 (1891). 540-48pp. Forrest, p. 313.

72.     Forgeot, Dr. Imprints of the hand . . . exhibited by Francis Galton. . . . Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. (1892). Single unbound sheet.

73.     Physical index to 100 persons, based on their measures and finger prints. N.p., n.d. [privately printed, 1894]. 5, [17]pp. plus slip. Forrest, p. 314. No copies noted in OCLC.

74.     Les empreintes digitales. Offprint from C. r. IVe Congr. Internationale d’Anthropologie Criminelle, sessions de Genève (1896). 4pp. Orig. wrappers. Forrest, p. 314.

75.     Finger prints. 8vo. xvi, 216pp. 16 plates. London and New York: Macmillan, 1892. 222 x 145 mm. Original maroon fine-diaper cloth, gilt-lettered spine (a bit faded). Fine Presentation copy, with printed slip “From the Author” bound in before the title; bookplate of Edward Galton Wheler, Galton’s nephew. PMM 376. G-M 186. In the present work, Galton described his methods of taking clear and permanent impressions of fingerprints, noted the persistence through life of both the gross and minute details of fingerprint patterns, and demonstrated that the odds of obtaining similar fingerprints from two different fingers were so astronomically great as to prove that two identical fingerprints must be the product of the same finger. He classed fingerprints by the three major categories of whorl, loop and arch, following the method suggested by Henry Faulds in 1880. He also amassed the first data on the influence of heredity on fingerprint patterns, showing that pattern types were transmitted through inheritance. See Stigler, “Galton and identification by fingerprints,” in Statistics on the Table (1999), pp. 131-40 for a discussion of Galton’s study in the light of recent work on DNA “fingerprinting.” Forrest, ch. 15; p. 313.

76.     Decipherment of blurred finger prints. 8vo. [2], 18pp. 16 photographic plates of fingerprints. London: Macmillan, 1893. 227 x 143 mm. Original maroon cloth, gilt-lettered spine (sl. faded) and front cover. Fine copy apart from slight wear to extremities. Presentation copy, inscribed by Galton to his sister Emma Sophia opposite the title: “E. S. Galton from the Author, June 1893.” Photogravure of Galton tipped in below presentation inscription. A supplementary chapter to Galton’s Finger Prints, showing “how to prepare fingerprint evidence from badly impressed prints” (Gillham, p. 243). Forrest, p. 313. 36 copies noted in OCLC.

77.     Enlarged finger prints. Extract from Photographic Work 2 (1893): 61-63. Unbound. Forrest, p. 313.

78.     Identification [letter to the editor]. Extract from Nature 48 (July 6, 1893). 1 sheet. Forrest, p. 313.

79.     Fingerprint directories. 8vo. [6], 127, [1]pp. 9 photographic plates. London: Macmillan, 1895. 224 x 144 mm. Original maroon cloth, gilt-lettered spine, light wear to extremities. Fine. Presentation copy, inscribed by Galton to his sister Emma Sophia on the half-title: “E. S. Galton from the Author, May 18th, 1895.” Photogravure of Galton tipped in opposite half-title. Galton’s last major work on fingerprints, intended to “provide a means for indexing the fingerprints of several hundred thousand individuals” (Gillham, p. 243). Forrest, p. 314.

80.     Henry, Edward R. (1850-1931). Classification and uses of finger prints. 8vo. iv, 112pp. 11 plates (3 folding), text illustrations. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1900. 218 x 139 mm. Original gray cloth lettered in black, endpapers browned. From the library of Galton’s sister Emma Sophia, with her signature, dated August 1900, on the front endpaper. Photogravure of Francis Galton tipped to verso of the front free endpaper. Henry, a member of the Indian civil service, developed the first workable system of fingerprint classification, which is still in use today. Henry visited Galton’s laboratory in 1894, where he was introduced to Galton’s fingerprint methodology, and corresponded extensively with Galton on fingerprints after returning to India. Henry’s Classification and Uses of Finger Prints, commissioned by the Indian Government in 1900, went through numerous editions, and his fingerprint system was adopted in Great Britain at the turn of the century. In 1901 Henry was appointed head of the newly created Central Fingerprint Branch at Scotland Yard. Gillham, pp. 248-49.

81.     Wilton, George Wilton. Fingerprints: History, law, romance. 8vo. xix, 317pp. 11 plates (1 fold.). London: William Hodge, 1938. 215 x 141 mm. Original blue cloth, gilt-lettered spine. Fine. Galton’s work is discussed on pp. 37-67.

82.     Statistical inquiries into the efficacy of prayer. Extract from Fortnightly Review 12 (1872): 125-35. Wrappers. Erasmus Galton’s copy, with ownership signature & stamps. Forrest, p. 305.

83.     The efficacy of prayer [letter to the editor]. Extract from Spectator, August 24, 1872: 1072-73. Forrest, p. 306. Erasmus Galton’s copy, with stamp.

84.     Memories of my life. 8vo. viii, 339, 40 (ads)pp. Frontispiece, plate, text illustrations. London: Methuen, 1908. 226 x 142 mm. Original cloth, gilt-lettered front cover and spine. Occasional foxing, light dust-soiling, but fine. The first edition consisted of 750 copies. Forrest, p. 317.

85.     The first steps towards the domestication of animals. Offprint from Trans. Ethnological Soc. London 3 (1865). 17pp. Wrappers. Forrest, p. 305.

86.     On the excess of females in the West Indian islands, from documents communicated by the Anthropological Institute. . . . Extract from J. Anthro. Inst. 4 (1874): 136-37. Wrappers. Forrest, p. 306.

87.     Galtonia candicans. Extract from The Gardener’s Chronicle (1881). [4]pp. Without wrappers. Describes a species of flower named for Galton by a French botanist.

88.     Exhibition of an ancient Peruvian gold breastplate. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 18 (1889). Single unbound sheet. Forrest, p. 312 (wrong date).

89.     Miss North [obituary]. Offprint from J. Anthro. Inst. 20 (1891). Single unbound sheet. Forrest, p. 313.

90.     [Obituary for Dr. John Rae.] Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 60 (1893). v-vii pp. Without wrappers.

91.     Questions bearing on specific stability. Offprint from Trans. Entomological Soc. London (1895). 155-57pp. Wrappers. Forrest, p. 314.

92.     Terms of imprisonment. Extract from Nature 52 (June 20, 1895): 174-76. No wrappers. Forrest, p. 314.

93.     The Queen’s commemoration [letter to the editor]. Extract from The Spectator (Feb. 6, 1897). 1 sheet.

94.     Note to the memoir by Professor Karl Pearson, F.R.S., on the spurious correlation. Offprint from Proc. Roy. Soc. 60 (1897). 498-502pp. Orig. printed wrappers. Forrest, p. 314.

95.     The most suitable proportion between the values of first and second prizes. Offprint from Biometrika 1 (1902). 385-90pp. Followed by “Note on Francis Galton’s problem,” by Karl Pearson (pp. 390-99). Orig. printed wrappers. Forrest, p. 316.

96.     Driesmans, Heinrich. Francis Galton. Privately printed, 1903. 22pp. Orig. printed wrappers. Ms. notes in back.

97.     Francis Galton. List of his principal books and memoirs. . . . Privately printed, 1903. 10pp. Orig. printed wrappers. Signature of E[lizabeth] A[nne] Wheler, Galton’s sister, on the front wrapper.

98.     The biographical press agency. Francis Galton. N.p., 1904. 8ff. Engraved portrait. Orig. printed wrappers. A brief biographical notice published in Galton’s 83rd year.

99.     Suggestions for improving the literary style of scientific memoirs. Offprint from Trans. Roy. Soc. Lit. 28, part 2 (1908). 17pp. (incl. discussion on pp. 9-17). Without wrappers. Forrest, p. 316.

100. Geikie, Archibald. Address . . . delivered at the anniversary meeting of the Royal Society. [London: Harrison & Sons, 1910]. 13pp. Orig. printed wrappers. Includes account of Galton’s receipt of the Royal Society’s Copley Medal.

101. [Darwin, George H.] Sir Francis Galton, 1822-1911. Extract from J. Roy. Soc. (1911). No wrappers.

102. Blacker, C. P. Eugenics: Galton and after. London: Duckworth, 1952. 349pp. Frontispiece and plate leaf, text diagrams. Orig. blue cloth, dust-jacket.

103. Hilts, Victor L. A guide to Francis Galton’s English Men of Science. In Trans. American Phil. Soc., n.s., 65, part 5 (1975). Whole number. Philadelphia: Am. Phil. Soc., 1975. 85pp. Orig. printed wrappers.

104. Forrest, D. W. Francis Galton: The life and work of a Victorian genius. New York: Taplinger, 1974. x, [2], 340pp. 8 plate leaves. Orig. brown cloth, dust-jacket.


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MANAGEMENT CIRCLE

Disagree without being disagreeable

Your department has to make a major decision, and you disagree with the direction the group is taking.  Majority rule and consensus are valuable goals.  So, when you believe co-workers are making a mistake, tread carefully, but let them know your position.  Use this non-confrontational technique:

1) Take the rational approach.  Present your information step by step.  Lead your colleagues through a logical presentation of the reasons behind your belief.  Don't assume they'll understand your reasoning.  Leave the sugarcoating behind and speak plainly.

2) Be specific about your concerns.  Department members will receive your ideas more favorably if you avoid trashing the group's plans and ideas wholesale.  Instead, concentrate on the areas that raise the most red flags for you.  Detail why you think the plan won't work.

3) Honor others' opinions.  But share your own experience.  If necessary, ask in-house experts to help you make your case.

4) Be flexible.  Don't adopt an all-or-nothing position.  Listen to how your co-workers respond to your critique.  Together, you may be able to create a third new option that everyone can support.

-Adapted from
Work it Out, Sandra Krebs Hirsh with Jane A.G. Kise, Davies-Black Publishing, via Communication Briefings, September 2003, 800.722.9221, briefings.com.

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