T H E
D E T A I L
Monday, April 21, 2003
BREAKING NEWz you can
compiled by Jon Stimac
that Warm to the Real You - THE
NEW YORK TIMES, - April 17, 2003 ...An
excellent article containing the basics of different products from today's
leading biometric companies...
Decade-Old Case Turns Hot - THE
OMAHA WORLD HERALD - April 18, 2003 ...Nearly a decade after an elderly woman was raped and smothered in Omaha, a fingerprint led to a suspect...
Arizona's CSI analysts fight crime much like their TV counterparts -
CASA GRANDE VALLEY NEWSPAPER
- April 15, 2003
...crime scene analysts for the Arizona Department of Public Safety regional crime lab in Lake Havasu City are putting felons away in the real world - not in the fictitious realms of Las Vegas or Miami...
Good morning via the "Detail," a weekly e-mail newsletter that greets
latent print examiners around the globe every Monday morning. The purpose of the
Detail is to help keep you informed of the current state of affairs in the
latent print community, to provide an avenue to circulate original
fingerprint-related articles, and to announce important events as they happen in
Last week we looked at
the Robert L. Johnson Foundation of the International Association for
Identification. This week we look at some proposed definitions from Craig
Coppock, Forensic Specialist in Spokane, Washington.
According to all relevant Daubert hearing information, ACE-V is the
standard fingerprint identification methodology. ACE-V is analogous to the
scientific method and has been presented in many court hearings as evidence that
fingerprint identification is a science.
While the concept of ACE-V is not new, this acronym for
Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification is relatively modern.
This new language in conjunction with recent Daubert hearings has highlight the
need for other language revisions for words used in fingerprint identification.
In reality, we must rethink how we classify and define identifications and
errors according to ACE-V. We must also recognize when shortcuts are
presented as the "scientifically acceptable" ACE-V methodology. In
effect, we must standardize terminology and methodology, and then practice
within those standards.
ACE-V is a complete methodology that requires all
the steps (A, C, E, and V) to be completed prior to any formal conclusions being
drawn. Obviously, this includes the verification step. The lone
exception may be standard records maintenance such as A.F.I.S.. Even
"on-the spot" field checks with portable A.F.I.S. should require a
timely verification if a subject is arrested based on the automated fingerprint
ID. Accordingly, two revision that should be address are as follows:
A. Any "identification" must include
verification. Likewise, any unverified fingerprint identification is not
valid and is not technically an "identification." Respectfully,
a unverified identification should be addressed as a "provisional
identification." See definition below.
B. In regard to the testing of error rate in the
science of fingerprint identification’s ACE-V methodology, error calculations
of erroneous identifications should only include fingerprint identification and
not provisional fingerprint identification. Any error rate calculation
without considering the entire methodology would not be relevant to the
methodology itself. See definitions below.
The following definitions are proposed for consideration:
Dactylography / Dactyloscopy
The science of fingerprint (friction ridge) identification. “Daktulos”
is Greek for finger.
(Note: The term “ridgeology” may not be in line with traditional
terminology. If we really want to be considered a science by all, we need
to use standardized terms when ever possible. Science is in a constant
state of change. However that does not mean that the field needs a name
change with each discovery or advance.)
The term "Fingerprint" is most accurately used to denote an impression
made by the finger itself at the exclusion of other friction skin.
However, it can also be used as a general term for friction skin found on the
palmar surface of the hand and plantar surface of the feet, as well as resulting
impressions made by any area of friction ridge skin.
10-Print Fingerprint Examiner:
A person who is limited to 10-print / exemplar comparisons. (When exemplars are
purposefully generated as exemplar standards.)
Note: There is a fundamental difference between 10-print fingerprint
examiners and latent print examiners.)
A conclusion of individualization based on a comparative analysis of two or more
fingerprint impressions utilizing standard ACE-V methodology.
Latent Fingerprint Examiner:
A person who compares all types of friction skin and resulting impressions for
purposes of identification.
Provisional Fingerprint Identification:
A unverified fingerprint identification. (Analysis, Comparison, and
Evaluation of the ACE-V methodology without verification.)
(Note: What nobody talks about.)
Re-application of fingerprint identification methodology to ensure accuracy.
A verification is the final step of the ACE-V methodology.
(Note: It takes two examiners to error in fingerprint identification.
In the situation of a provisional identification, naturally only one examiner
Craig A. Coppock
Craig is looking for your feedback, so feel free to post on the message board,
or e-mail him personally.
I would like to devote an upcoming Detail to the terms
"Identification" versus "Individualization". If you
have any strong feelings on the two terms, or if you would like to clarify or
expand on the definitions of each word, contact me and we'll get something
together. I have already spoken with a couple of people, but I think it
would be appropriate to include as many viewpoints as possible.
"Fingerprints are also a key way to determine identity. [Henry] Lee said that even after months in the water, if there is any remnant of skin on the victim's fingers, a fingerprint can be reconstructed. An examiner would remove skin cells from the fingers and place them in a petri dish, adding glycerine to let them slowly rehydrate. Eventually, the print would be recreated."
From Beyond the Bay Newspaper,
Publication date: 04/16/2003
"Many tests available to discover identities"
BY BETH FOUHY
Submit YOUR Funny Fingerprint Finds as
you find them. (Anonymous entries are OK too.)
CLPEX.com this week...
Updated the Detail Archives
Updated the Newzroom
Feel free to pass The Detail along to other examiners. This is a free
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Until next Monday morning, don't work too hard or too little.
Have a GREAT week!